Darma NAS OS Online Documentation
Visit nas.darma.com for the most current version of this document

 
Introduction         Getting Started         Network Setup         Web Control Panel    
 
Introduction
 
Getting Started

Software Requirements
Hardware Requirements
Installing the Operating System
Web Control Panel Introduction
Safe shutdown
     

Network Setup

IP and Netmask Configuration
Navigating the Keypad/LCD menu (Optional)
Using a DHCP Server
Testing the Network Connection
     

Web Control Panel

System Info
     

Server Information
Registration Info
Quick Reference
Administrator Options
     
 
General Setup      

Hostname
Workgroup
IP Address and Netmask
Gateway
WINS Server
DNS Server
Date and Time
Security Options Explained
Store Passwords Locally
Join a Windows Domain
Changing Administrator Password
     

User Setup
     

Current Users
User Quotas
Change User Password
     

Group Setup
     

Group Quotas
     

Disk Config
     


Available Disks and Arrays
Creating an Array
Removing an Array
Disk Failures

     

LVM Config
     


LVM Explained
Create New Logical Volume
Volume Information
Format a Volume
Expand a Volume
Repair a Volume
XFS Filesystem Explained


File Sharing
     


Creating Shares
Share Options
Directory Structure
File Ownership
File Permissions
ACL's Explained
Add/Modify an ACL
Share Mirroring

     
 





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Introduction

Congratulations on your purchase of the most reliable and convenient Network Storage Management System available.

Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a new generation of simplified file servers, remotely managed with a web browser, which can be installed in a few minutes. When a company needs more data storage, a NAS appliance server can be plugged in without interrupting the network. Our software greatly reduces training and administration costs and introduces the concept of security to network managed storage servers. We differentiate ourselves from the competition with our new generation graphical interface, advanced security controls, broad support for industry standards, and high performance architecture.

Our Storage Management System is suited for NAS server and storage related manufacturers, storage solution providers (SSP), and distributors that specialize in storage products. We also welcome traditional white-box system builders and build-your-own customers.

Storage Management System Overview:

  • Encrypted connection to browser configuration tool with SSL
  • Supports IDE or SCSI disks, software and/or hardware RAID 0, 1, or 5
  • Easy setup with real-time secure Java web interface
  • Robust SGI-XFS 64 bit journaling filesystem
  • Optional support for keypad/LCD
  • High performance Linux kernel with advanced security features
  • Unlimited client connections (Evaluation edition allows 2 clients per share)
  • Coexists with Windows Domain security and Active Directory
  • Local security option for peer-to-peer networks without a Domain server
  • Supports industry standard components
  •  

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      Getting Started
     

    Software Requirements
    You will need to install the Sun Java runtime version 1.4.2x or higher (java.sun.com) to display the Web Control Panel on your workstation. We have tested version 6.x of Netscape and Internet Explorer but most current web browsers should work fine.

    Hardware Requirements
    The Darma NAS OS is designed to work with a wide range of common hardware on the Intel and AMD x86 platform. We are always adding support for new Network Interface Cards (NIC) and SCSI and IDE controllers. Please contact us if you need to add support for a NIC or storage controller at support@darma.com. A complete Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) can be found at www.nas.darma.com.

    We strongly suggest using an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) for power protection. UPS systems greatly reduce the possibility of data loss and hardware failures.

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    Installing the Operating System
    The Darma NAS OS is installed from a bootable CD-Rom attached to the NAS server or on a test PC.
    1. Download the latest .ISO image file from www.nas.darma.com
    2. Use CD burning software to create the bootable CD from the .ISO file
    3. Setup a test PC or your NAS with an IDE flashdrive (or harddrive) on the
    primary-master IDE, and a CD Rom drive on the second IDE channel
    4. ** To prevent accidental data loss - Disconnect any other drives! **
    5. Boot from the CD and carefully follow the on-screen instructions. This will
    write the latest NAS OS software to your disk drive. Use this drive to boot your NAS device.

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    Web Control Panel Introduction
    Your NAS server is administered with an advanced and secure JAVA-based web browser Control Panel. This tool is accessible just like a website by using a web browser on your network. The administrator may configure users, shares, (optional) mirroring, RAID settings and much more, from any computer with access to the network. The following sections will show you how to access the Control Panel, beginning with the logon page. An overview:

    1. Launch a web browser on any computer on the network
    2. Enter the IP address of the NAS server in the address field
    3. Acknowledge any messages about SSL security. It is perfectly safe to trust the encrypted and secure web server.
    4. If you are unable to connect to the logon page, make sure you have the latest Java Runtime (java.sun.com). Also see Testing the Network Connection to troubleshoot your setup
    5. The user name is always admin
    6. The default password is password. Be sure to change your password to maintain security!
    7. Note the information on the System Info page
    8. Proceed to the General Setup page

    NOTE: Changing the administrator password should be taken seriously. The Web Control Panel can be used to grant full access to confidential data to anyone with the administrator password. We have taken great lengths to ensure security between the web browser and the NAS server with encryption to thwart password sniffers. However, any network user with the password can destroy data or wipe an entire disk array!

    NOTE: Please secure the administrator password with care. We are unable to provide support for lost passwords due to security measures built into the software. You must reinstall the operating system if you forget your password.

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    Safe Shutdown
    Your NAS server utilizes disk caching, and as a result, data can be lost or corrupted if a machine is shut down improperly. To avoid such an occurrence, always shut down the device properly. You may shut down the server on the System Info page of the Web Control Panel or with the optional keypad/LCD.


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      Network Setup

    The NAS server must be connected to a properly configured TCP/IP network. You will need to know a valid IP address and subnet, or use a DHCP server before you start. Contact your administrator if you need assistance.

    IP and Netmask Configuration (Static, or Fixed IP)
    You may choose between a static or auto assigned (DHCP server required) IP address when you install the Darma NAS OS. If you purchased your NAS server from a reseller or manufacturer they will give you the default IP address. Once you connect to the Web Control Panel you can change your IP and Netmask in the General Setup page. If your NAS server has the optional keypad/LCD you will see the IP address on the main menu.

    Note: Please take care to assign a valid IP address and subnet mask for your network configuration. Major network problems may occur if another system has been assigned the same IP address.

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    Navigating the Keypad/LCD Menu (Optional)
    The optional keypad on your NAS server makes the initial setup quick and easy with these basic actions:

    1. Press any arrow key to enter the main menu
    2. Choose menu items by using the up and down arrows. Current selections have an arrow on the left side
    3. Press the right arrow to select a menu or submenu

    Note: Some menus require you to click past the right to continue.

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    Using a DHCP Server
    By default your NAS server is set to receive an IP address automatically from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server on your network. You will need to know this IP address to use the Web Control Panel. We suggest using a static IP address. A static IP address will save time since you will always use the same IP address to access the Web Control Panel.

    Note: You may set additional network information with the keypad, or you may wait to use the Web Control Panel.

    Testing the Network Connection
    You may normally continue to the next section to complete your installation but you may need to troubleshoot your IP settings if you cannot access the Web Control Panel. From a workstation you will need to ping the IP address. In Microsoft Windows for example, click <start>, <run>, type command at the prompt, and then type: ping xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx (Example: ping 192.168.1.50) from the command line to make sure that the TCP/IP settings are valid. If you receive a request timed out message, you are not communicating to the NAS server yet. Please verify your IP and Subnet range, proper cabling and valid network topography.

    NOTE: We have had several reports of problems accessing a local IP address when the browser is configured to use a proxy server, especially Microsoft Proxy Server. The client software required for some proxy software interferes with local network connectivity. You may be able to bypass the proxy server in the browser preferences. You may also install Netscape Communicator. With either browser, choose “direct connection to the Internet” in the connection preferences.


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    Web Control Panel

    System Info
    The System Info page includes general server information, registration panel, reference documentation, and administrator options.

    General Setup
    This section will explain the various options available in the General Setup screen in the Web Control Panel. You will be able to see this server in Windows Network Neighborhood once you enter the hostname and workgroup information.

    Note: The web configuration tool makes changes in real time. When you make a change it typically takes effect immediately. No reboots are necessary. To confirm a change has been accepted, click the page tab or refresh button. Do not use the browser refresh button, doing so will close your secure connection to the web server.

    Hostname
    This field contains the current NetBios hostname of the NAS server. The NetBios hostname is the computer name you see when you browse Network Neighborhood in Windows.

    Workgroup
    This field contains the Workgroup name of the network. The NAS server and other computers normally use the same Workgroup name in Windows network environments.

    IP Address and Netmask
    The IP address identifies your server on the network and must be unique. You may also assign the IP address with the optional keypad on the front of the NAS server.

    WINS Server
    This field contains the IP address of the WINS server that the NAS server currently uses to resolve NetBios hostnames. Use IP address 0.0.0.0 to disable WINS name resolution. Even when using a DHCP server, you may need to specify a WINS server if you are using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) and want to browse to the NAS server.

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    Date and Time
    The date and time should be correct for time sensitive data.

    Changing Administrator Password
    To change the Administrator password, enter the General Setup page in the Web Configuration Tool. Enter the old password, then the new password, and then verify the new password.

    Note: Please secure the administrator password with care. We are unable to provide support for lost passwords due to security measures built into the software. Contact tech support for a replacement operating system module if you forget your password.

    Security Options
    The NAS server may be configured for security locally or with Windows NT/2000/2003 domain security. The suggested configuration is with a Windows server on the network acting as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC). A properly configured Windows domain will authenticate a user when they logon to the network, then allow that user to access network resources defined in the user security database.

    On a peer-to-peer network, with no dedicated Windows authentication server, the NAS server may be configured to provide user security. Please be aware that peer-to-peer networks are inherently less secure due to limitations in Windows 95/98. Each user at a Windows 95/98 workstation needs to have a username and password to logon. Do not leave the password field blank on the workstation! If the password field is blank, then a user tries to access the NAS server, they will be prompted for a password. If the user enters a password at that point, Windows will prompt to save the password in the password list. This is a gaping security hole in Win98 and Win95 and security for that user will be compromised.

    Note: Windows 95A (and possibly OSR2) clients transmit passwords in plain text across the network. If you are worried about users with packet sniffers this may be of concern to you. Using the NAS server without a domain controller is potentially insecure, and not recommended for networks with high security requirements. The NAS server will work best with a domain environment, with encrypted passwords and all of the security benefits of domains.

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    Store Passwords Locally
    Users must be defined on the NAS server if you do not have a Windows domain controller (otherwise known as a peer-to-peer network) or if you have non-domain member clients that need access to the NAS server. The sections below will explain the process of adding users with or without a domain controller.

    Join a Windows Domain
    Having a Windows domain network is the ideal situation. The NAS server will recognize domain users and passwords when joined to the domain. To join the NAS server to the domain:

    1. Choose Join Windows NT 4 Compatible Domain
    2. Enter the PDC Computer Name, which is the NetBios computer name of the domain controller, not the name of the domain
    3. Select Apply
    4. Select Join Domain
    5. Enter the user name and password of someone authorized to join the domain
    Without a Windows Domain Controller
    On a peer-to-peer network passwords are stored on the NAS server. It is only necessary to add users on the NAS if it is not joined to a domain or when you have non-domain member clients that need access to the NAS server. Please see the warnings in the Security Options section of this document for more information regarding Windows 95/98/ME security. To add a user:
    1. Make sure Store Password Locally is selected on the General Setup page
    2. Go to the User Setup page
    3. Click New
    4. Add a user name that matches a valid user on the network
    5. Enter a password. (User must logon to Windows with same password)
    6. Click Add

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    User Setup

    Current Users
    If you are joined to a domain you will already see a list of users from your domain controller. You may also add local users for peer-to-peer style authentication. Domain and non-domain users can coexist.

    User Quotas
    Storage usage is a common administration concern. The Web Control Panel allows the administrator to manage the disk-usage quotas of individual users and groups of users. For example you may want to restrict Bob down the hall from using more drive space than you want him to. More information about Group Quotas can be found in the Group Setup section.

    1. Go to the User Setup page
    2. Select a user
    3. Click the Enable User Quota on this Volume checkbox
    4. Type a number in megabytes
    5. Click the Apply button

    Note: Quotas are calculated by the file size of all files owned by a user. Please see the File Sharing section below for more information about file Ownership.

    Change User Password
    You may change local user passwords here. Domain passwords should be managed on your domain controller.

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    Group Setup
    Administrators often use groups to save time when assigning permissions to network users. By default, any users added will be included in the User Group. You may further define new groups of users, and then assign file permissions based on groups as well as users. To add a group:

    1. Go to the Group Setup page
    2. Click New
    3. Name the group
    4. Click Add
    5. Add or Remove users to the group

    Group Quotas
    The Web Control Panel allows the administrator to manage the disk-usage quotas of individual users and groups of users. For example, you may want to restrict the accounting group from using more drive space than you want them to.

    1. Go to the Group Setup page
    2. Select a Group from the drop down list
    3. Choose a Volume to apply this Quota to
    4. Click the Group Quota Enabled checkbox
    5. You may also set a fixed Quota size for all users in the Set All Members User Quotas section
    6. Type a number in megabytes
    7. Click the Apply button

    Note: Quotas are calculated by the file size of all files owned by a user. Please see the File Sharing section below for more information about file Ownership.

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    Disk Config
    RAID stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. RAID allows you to combine multiple disks into one chunk of high-performance and/or fault-tolerant storage space. There are three main RAID levels that the Darma NAS OS supports:

    RAID 0 - This is also known as striping. It splits any data stored on the array into multiple chunks and puts them on different disks. This increases performance, but provides no fault tolerance. In fact, it is less fault tolerant than no RAID at all, because if any individual disk fails all of the data on the array is lost.

    RAID 1 - This is also known as mirroring. You only get the storage capacity of one drive, but you have an exact copy of the same data on each drive.

    RAID 5 - This RAID level is striping with parity and requires 3 or more disks. In other words, the data you write to a RAID 5 array is split between the disks in the array like in RAID 0, but there is also backup information written to the array. With RAID 5 you lose one disks worth of storage space, but any single disk in the array can fail without data loss. This RAID level also has the option of Hot Spare devices. A disk designated as a Hot Spare for a RAID 5 array will be introduced as a data disk in the event of a disk failure. Using a hot spare, a RAID 5 array will repair itself to a fault-tolerant state as soon as a failure occurs.

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    Available Disks and Arrays
    The Disk Config page is used to manage RAID arrays. All of the disks and arrays detected by the system are listed under Available Disks/Arrays. RAID arrays can be formed using these disks and arrays. After making any changes on this page, you must click the Activate Changes button to synchronize the system with the choices you've made.

    Creating an Array:

    1. Click the New Array button
    2. Choose a RAID Level and click OK
    3. Add RAID volumes from the Available Disks/Arrays list to the RAID
    Volumes list by selecting a disk and clicking Add RAID Volume
    4. If using RAID 5, you can add volumes to the Spare Volumes list as well
    5. Finally, click Activate Changes and wait for the operation to complete.

    This process can take several minutes.

    After clicking Remove Array, the disks that were part of the selected array are moved back into the Available Disks/Arrays list.

    Removing an Array
    You can remove an array by clicking the Remove Array button. To remove an array, it must not contain any Logical Volumes.

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    Disk Failures
    When a disk fails in a RAID 1 or RAID 5 array, the Array Status will be listed as Disk Failure. To restore the array, shut down the NAS system and replace the failed disk with a disk of equal or greater size. Power on the NAS and find the affected disk in the list of RAID Volumes. Select the disk by clicking on it and then click Reinitialize. This will format the disk and introduce it to the running array.

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    LVM Explained
    The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) is a layer of abstraction between physical volumes (disks and arrays) and logical volumes (places to store your data.) What LVM does is combine all of your physical volumes into a pool of storage. You can then use any amount of that physical storage to create a logical volume. Logical volumes are then used to store network shares.

    Create New Logical Volume
    Before creating a new logical volume, click the Refresh VG button to make sure that all connected drives and configured arrays have been introduced to the storage pool.

    NOTE: Clicking Refresh VG will format your disks if they have not been introduced to the storage pool already. Disks are not added to the storage pool by default to prevent accidental data loss.

    Click the New Volume button and choose a name for this logical volume.

    If you want, you can choose the order of physical volumes that space will be allocated from. For example, if you have one RAID array and one individual disk listed under Available Disks/Arrays, and you want to create a volume using space from the RAID array only, you would add the RAID array to the list of Target Volumes by selecting it and clicking the Add button. Space will be allocated from the volumes listed under Target Disks/Arrays in order.

    If no volumes are selected for Target Disks Arrays, storage will be allocated from the volumes that are listed under Available Disks/Arrays in order. Now you can click the Format Volume to allocate space from the storage pool for this volume. Choose the size you want this volume to be, in megabytes.

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    Volume Information
    This section displays general volume information along administrative tools to format, expand, and repair a volume.

    Format a Volume
    After you have created a Logical Volume you must specify how much space you wish to assign to the file system with the Format Volume button. You may expand the volume later with the Expand Volume button.

    Expand a Volume
    To expand an existing volume, just click the Expand Volume button and enter a new size. If there is enough space available, the Logical Volume will be expanded.

    Repair a Volume - Experts Only
    Clicking the Repair Volume button will attempt to repair the filesystem on a Logical Volume using xfs_repair. This utility should only be used in the event of severe filesystem damage. If you do not have a backup of the data you should consult a data recovery specialist before using this utility.

    XFS Filesystem Explained
    The Darma NAS OS uses the high-performance XFS file system created by SGI. More information is located at www.sgi.com.

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    File Sharing

    Creating Shares
    The NAS server must have at least one Share, which will appear as a folder in Windows Explorer/Network Neighborhood. After creating your shares, you will be able to organize data and restrict access to certain users (or groups of users). Shares can be mapped as drive letters on network clients and servers.

    You must have at least one Logical Volume defined before you will be able to create a Share. Please see the LVM Config section of this manual.

    Note: Some NAS products complicate matters by referring to a share as a volume, storage pools and other terminology. For simplicity, we will refer to a share as a share. To create a share:

    1. Go to the File Access page
    2. Choose New
    3. Name the Share, and choose a Logical Volume for the share to use
    4. Restart the File Sharing Service by clicking the Restart File Sharing button

    This share will appear as a folder in Network Neighborhood. At this time, you may copy data to the share, and then configure permissions for files contained in this share.

    Share Permissions and Special Settings
    When you create a share, you will have several advanced options, explained below.

    Permissions
    By default, all groups and users will have access to files created in a share. A typical server might have shares named Public, Company, MP3 and so on. Often, you will want to control access to files in a share using file permissions. The Darma NAS OS has full support for Access Control Lists, which is the same mechanism that Windows uses for file permissions.

    Briefly, Access Control Lists (or ACL's) are lists of permission settings on a file. Each entry in a file's Access Control List specifies an entity and the permissions that entity has for the file. Entities are user names, group names, or simply global, to specify permissions for everyone that isn't mentioned in a file's ACL. The permissions can be Read and/or Write access. Examples of entries in a file's ACL would be:

    user:administrator rw
    group:users rw
    global r

    There are always at least three entries in a file's ACL:
    1. Owner - this is a user ACL entry. By default this is set to the username of the person who created the file.
    2. Group - this is a group ACL entry. By default this is set to the primary group of the person who created the file.
    3. Global Access - this is a special ACL entry that controls the default permissions on a file for someone whom none of the other ACL entries apply to.

    You can change permissions on files using Windows or through the NAS Web Control Panel. You must first select the file(s) that you wish to change the permissions for. To use the Web Control Panel follow these steps:

    Go to the File Access page and select a share from the Current Share drop down list. Select a file or folder to administer. You may hold down the shift key to select multiple files and folders

    To change the Owner user and group, simply select a new Owner or Group from the drop-down menus.

    To delete a non-permanent ACL entry, highlight it in the list of ACL entries and click Delete ACL Entry.

    To add or change an ACL entry, select an entity from the drop-down list, choose the permission settings for that entity and click Apply. Select the Apply to Subdirectories checkbox if you wish to recursively apply the new ACL entry to the contents of every folder you've selected.

    .